Toxicants & Fumigants

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Definitions–See Glossary

Toxicant–substance used to poison a problem animal, typically through ingestion.

Fumigant–gas used to poison a nuisance animal as it breathes.

General Use Pesticides (GUP) may be purchased over-the-counter.

Restricted Use Pesticided (RUP) require a pesticide applicator’s license to purchase and use.

Secondary poisoning-Injury to an organism that ate the animal that was poisoned originally.

Facts about Pesticides

  • No one can guarantee where a poisoned animal will die.
  • No pesticide can be called “SAFE”. You can only use pesticides more safely or less safely.
  • Most negative incidents with toxicants and fumigants occur because the applicator failed to follow the instructions on the label.

Active Ingredients


1. Phosphine Gas

2. Charcoal-Potassium Nitrate



First Generation Active Ingredient Feeding
Warfarin Multi-feed
Chlorophacinone Multi-feed
Diphacinone Multi-feed
Second Generation
Bordifacoum Single Feed
Bromadiolone Single Feed
Difenacoum Single Feed
Difethialone Single Feed


Active Ingredient Feeding Mode of Action
Bromethalin Interferes with the animal’s nervous system
Cholecalciferol Interferes with calicum
Zinc Phosphide

Zinc Phosphide


Bait Station UseBait stations for rats and mice Univ. of Nebraska-Lincoln

Resources on Anticoagulant Toxicants–New Zealand Govt. Publication

Toxicant RisksUniv. of Arizona