Toxicants

Toxicants & Fumigants

For a professional discussion of Chemical Controls visit http://nwco.net 

Definitions–See Glossary

Toxicant–substance used to poison a problem animal, typically through ingestion.

Fumigant–gas used to poison a nuisance animal as it breathes.

General Use Pesticides (GUP) may be purchased over-the-counter.

Restricted Use Pesticides (RUP) require a pesticide applicator’s license to purchase and use.

Secondary poisoning-Injury to an organism that ate the animal that was poisoned originally.

Facts about Pesticides

  • No one can guarantee where a poisoned animal will die.
  • No pesticide can be called “SAFE”. You can only use pesticides more safely or less safely.
  • Most negative incidents with toxicants and fumigants occur because the applicator failed to follow the instructions on the label.

Fumigants

1. Phosphine Gas

  • Phostoxin– Degesch America
    • Fumigation Management Plan (FMP) is required when using this product.

2. Charcoal-Potassium Nitrate

Used as a rodent fumigant in burrows, carbon (charcoal) formulated with several other pesticide active ingredients (sodium and potassium nitrates and sulfur), is used in pyrotechnic fumigant gas cartridge products. When a cartridge is ignited and placed in a pest burrow, it produces carbon monoxide and other gases that kill target pests.

Toxicants in Rodenticides

Anticoagulants

First Generation Active Ingredient Feeding
Warfarin Multi-feed
Chlorophacinone Multi-feed
Diphacinone Multi-feed
Second Generation
Brodifacoum Single Feed
Bromadiolone Single Feed
Difenacoum Single Feed
Difethialone Single Feed

Non-Anticoagulants

Active Ingredient Feeding Mode of Action
Bromethalin Single Feed Interferes with the animal’s nervous system
Cholecalciferol Single Feed Causes internal bleeding and kidney injury by increasing calcium levels to  a lethal level
Zinc Phosphide Single Feed Blocks cells from making energy, and the cells die

Resources

Bait Station Use— Univ. of Nebraska-Lincoln