BATS (ORDER: CHIOPTERA)Fig. 1. Little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus)

Arthur M. Greenhall
Research Associate
Department of Mammalogy
American Museum of Natural History
New York, NY 10024

Stephen C. Frantz
Vertebrate Vector Specialist
Wadsworth Center for Laboratories and Research
New York State Department of Health
Albany, NY 12201-0509

Fig. 1. Little brown bat, Myotis lucifugus


 The authors wish to thank the many people who have allowed them and other bat researchers to work in and about their homes, and have, thus, contributed to this effort. We give special thanks to Roger W. Barbour and Wayne H. Davis for permission to reproduce figures from their excellent book, Bats of America (University Press of Kentucky). Charles V. Trimarchi is acknowledged for carefully reviewing this chapter and providing many useful comments. We thank Debra VonZwehl and Christine Borecki for processing the manuscript.

Figures 2 through 4 from Barbour and Davis (1979).

Figure 5 adapted from Harvey (1986).

Figure 6 adapted from Tuttle (1988), except Yuma myotis and Keen’s bat (from Barbour and Davis 1979).

Figure 7 adapted from Trimarchi and Frantz (1985).

Figure 8 by R. Suss.

Figures 12, 15, and 16 by S. C. Frantz.

Figures 9, 10, 11, and 14 from Greenhall (1982)

Figure 13 by S. C. Frantz

Fig. 16. One of five bat houses constructed to provide an alternative roost for bats excluded from nearby structures.

For Additional Information on Bats

Anonymous. 1983. Wisconsin firm develops bat excluder. Pest. Control Technol. 11:74.

Anonymous. 1986. States focus on bat conservation. Bats. 3(3): 3-4.

Barbour, R. W., and W. H. Davis. 1979. Bats of America. Univ. Kentucky Press, Lexington. 286 pp.

 Barclay, R. M. R., D. W. Thomas, and M. B. Fenton. 1980. Comparison of methods used for controlling bats in buildings. J. Wildl. Manage. 44: 501-506.

CDC. 1977. Histoplasmosis control. US Dep. Health, Educ. and Welfare, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, Georgia. 10 pp.

Constantine, D. G. 1979. Bat rabies and bat management. Bull. Soc. Vector Ecol. 4:1-9. Constantine, D. G. 1982. Bat-proofing of buildings by installation of valve-like devices in entryways. J. Wildl. Manage. 46:507-513.

Dalquest, W. W., and D. W. Walton. 1970. Diurnal retreats of bats. Pages 162-187, in B. H. Slaughter and D. W. Walton, eds. About bats. Southern Methodist Univ. Press, Dallas, Texas.

Fed. Reg., 1991. Notices, Federal Register/ August 28, 1991. 56(167):42615, 42620, and 42621.

Fenton, M. B. 1983. Just bats. Univ. Toronto Press, Toronto. 165 pp.

Frantz, S. C. 1984. Excluding housebats with birdnetting. Bat Res. News. 25(3/4):40-41.

Frantz, S. C. 1986. Bat-proofing structures with birdnetting checkvalves. Proc. Vertebr. Pest Conf. 12:260-268.

Frantz, S. C. 1987. Chlorophacinone, DDT and other pesticides for bat control: efforts to prohibit use in New York State. Bat Res. News. 28(3-4): 34.

Frantz, S. C. 1988. Architecture and commensal vertebrate pest management. Pages 228-295 in R. B. Kundsin, ed. Architectural design and indoor microbial pollution. Oxford Univ. Press, New York.

Frantz, S. C. 1989. Bat houses in state parks: an experiment in New York. Bats. 7:14.

Frantz, S. C., and C. V. Trimarchi. 1984. Bats in human dwellings: health concerns and management. Proc. Eastern Wild. Damage Control Conf. 1:299-308.

Geluso, K. N., J. Scott Altenbach, and R. C. Kerbo. 1987. Bats of Carlsbad Caverns National Park. Carlsbad Caverns Natural Hist. Assoc., Carlsbad, New Mexico. 34 pp.

George, R. B., and R. L. Penn. 1986. Histoplasmosis. Pages 69-85 in G. A. Sarosi and S. F. Davies, eds. Fungal diseases of the lung. Grune and Stratton, Inc., New York.

Greenhall, A. M. 1982. House bat management. Resour. Publ. No. 143. US Dep. Inter., Fish Wildl. Serv., Washington, DC. 33 pp.

Harvey, M. J. 1986. Arkansas bats: a valuable resource. Arkansas Game Fish Comm., Little Rock. 48 pp.

Hill, J. E., and J. D. Smith. 1984. Bats: A natural history. Univ. Texas Press, Austin. 243 pp.

Hurley, S., and M. B. Fenton. 1980. Ineffectiveness of fenthion, zinc phosphide, DDT and two ultrasonic rodent repellers for control of populations of little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus). Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 25:503-507.

Krebs, J. W., R. C. Holman, U. Hines, T. W. Strine, E. J. Mandel, and J. E. Childs. 1992. Rabies surveillance in the United States during 1991. Special Report, J. Am. Veterin. Med. Assoc. 201 (12):1836-1848.

Kunz, T. H. 1982. Roosting ecology of bats. Pages 1-55 in T. H. Kunz, ed. Ecology of bats. Plenum Press, New York.

Kunz, T. H., and A. Kurta. 1988. Capture methods and holding devices. Pages 1-29 in T.H. Kunz, ed. Ecological and behavioral methods for the study of bats. Smithsonian Inst. Press, Washington, DC.

Laidlaw, W. J., and M. B. Fenton. 1971. Control of nursery colony populations of bats by artificial light. J. Ecol. Manage. 35:843-46.

LaVal, R. K., and M. L. LaVal. 1980. Ecological studies and management of Missouri bats with emphasis on cave-dwelling species. Missouri Dep. Conserv. Terr. Ser. 8. 53 pp.

Lera, T. M., and S. Fortune. 1979. Bat management in the United States. Bull. Nat. Speleol. Soc. 41:3-9. NASPHV. 1993. Compendium of animal rabies control, 1993. Natl. Assoc. State Publ. Health Vet., Inc. Texas Dep. Health, Austin. 4 pp.

NPCA. 1991. Controlling bats. Technical Release ESPC 043233A, 11/13/91. Natl. Pest. Control. Assoc., Dunn Loring, Virginia. 4 pp.

NYSCPB. 1988. The quest for the pest. Consumer News (July 4, 1988), pp. 29, 30.

NYSDH. 1990. Bat rabies in New York State. Publ. No. 3003, New York State Dep. Health, Albany. 12 pp.

Reid-Sanden, F. L., J. G. Dobbins, J. S. Smith, and D. B. Fishbein. 1990. Rabies surveillance in the United States during 1989. Spec. Rep., J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 197:1571-1583.

Rippon, J. W. 1988. Histoplasmosis (Histoplasmosis capsulatum). Pages 381-423 in J. W. Rippon, ed. Medical mycology. W. B. Saunders Co., New York.

Stebbings, B., and S. Walsh. 1985. Bat boxes. Fauna and Floral Preserv. Soc., London. 16 pp.

Trimarchi, C. V. 1987. Rabies transmission from bats to terrestrial mammals: evidence of frequency and significance. Bat Res. News. 28(3-4):38.

Trimarchi, C. V., M. K. Abelseth, and R. J. Rudd. 1979. Aggressive behavior in rabid big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus). Pages 34-35 in Rabies Information Exchange, No. 1. US Dep. Human Health Services, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, Georgia.

Trimarchi, C. V., and S.C. Frantz. 1985. Bat control. New York State Dep. Health Pamphlet, Albany. 6 pp.

Tuttle, M. D. 1988. America’s neighborhood bats. Univ. Texas Press, Austin. 96 pp.

Tuttle, M. D., and D. Stevenson. 1982. Growth and survival of bats. Pages 105-150 in T.H. Kunz, ed. Ecology of bats. Plenum Press, New York.

US EPA. 1980. Re. Bradley Exterminating Company, Richfield, MN, Dockett No. I. F&R. V-604-C, May 8, 1980. US Environ. Protect. Agency, Kansas City, Missouri. 50 pp.

Wimsatt, W. A. 1970. Biology of bats. Vol. II. Academic Press, New York. 477 pp.


Scott E. Hygnstrom; Robert M. Timm; Gary E. Larson

Prevention and Control of Wildlife Damage 1994 logo


Cooperative Extension Division Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources University of Nebraska -Lincoln

United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Animal Damage Control

Great Plains Agricultural Council Wildlife Committee


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