Jeffrey S. Green
Assistant Regional Director
Lakewood, Colorado 80228
F. Robert Henderson
Animal Damage Control
Kansas State University
Manhattan, Kansas 66506-1600
Mark D. Collinge
Boise, Idaho 83705
Damage Prevention and Control Methods
Much of the information and several of the figures for this chapter were adapted from the SID Sheep Production Handbook, Predator Damage Control chapter, published by the American Sheep Industry Association, Inc. (1990) and various publications authored by
F. R. Henderson, J. S. Green, W. F. Andelt, G. E. Connolly, and D. A. Wade.
The section on economics of damage and control was adapted from Andelt (1987).
Figure 1 by Emily Oseas Routman.
Figure 6 adapted from a USDA-APHIS-ADC illustration by Renee Lanik, University of Nebraska-Lincoln.
For Additional Information
Alberta Agriculture. 1990. Methods of investigating predation of livestock. Alberta Agric., Crop Prot. Branch, Agdex 684-4. 36 pp.
Andelt, W. F. 1987. Coyote predation. Pages 128-140
in M. Novak, J. A. Baker, M. E. Obbard, and B. Malloch. Wild furbearer management and conservation in North America. Ontario Ministry. Nat. Resour.
Andelt, W. F. 1988. Proper use of snares for capturing furbearers. Colorado State Univ. Coop. Ext. Serv. Pub. 6.517, Fort Collins. 4 pp.
Andelt, W. F., and P. S. Gipson. 1979. Domestic turkey losses to radio-tagged coyotes. J. Wildl. Manage. 4:673-679.
Balser, D. S. 1964. Management of predator populations with antifertility agents. J. Wildl. Manage. 28:352-358.
Bateman, J. 1971. Animal traps and trapping. Stackpole Books. Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. 286 pp.
Bekoff, M., ed. 1978. Coyotes: biology, behavior, and management. Academic Press, New York. 384 pp.
Boggess, E. K., F. R. Henderson, and C. W. Spaeth. 1980. Managing predator problems: practices and procedures for preventing and reducing livestock losses. Coop. Ext. Serv. C-620, Kansas State Univ., Manhattan. 19 pp.
Connolly, G. 1992a. Sheep and goat losses to predators in the United States. Proc. Eastern Wildl. Damage Control Conf. 5:75-82.
Connolly, G. 1992b. Coyote damage to livestock and other resources. Pages 161-169
A. H. Boer, ed. Proceedings, ecology and management of the eastern coyote. Univ., New Brunswick, Fredericton.
Connolly, G. E. 1988. M-44 sodium cyanide ejectors in the Animal Damage Control program, 19761986. Proc. Vertebr. Pest Conf. 13:220-225.
Connolly, G. E. and W. M Longhurst. 1975. The effects of control on coyote populations â€” a simulation model. Univ. California, Coop. Ext. Serv. Bull. 1872. 37 pp.
deCalesta, D. S. 1983. Building an electric antipredator fence. Pacific Northwest Ext. Pub. 225. 11 pp.
Dorrance, M. J. 1982. Predation losses of cattle in Alberta. J. Range Manage. 35:690-692.
Gee, C. K., W. R. Bailey, R. L. Gum, and L. M. Arthur. 1977. Sheep and lamb losses to predators and other causes in the western United States. US Dep. Agric., Econ. Res. Serv., Agric. Econ. Rep. 369. 41 pp.
Gee, C. K., D. B. Nielsen and D. M. Stevens. 1977. Factors in the decline of the western sheep industry. US Dep. Agric., Econ. Res. Serv., Agric. Econ. Rep. 377. 31 pp.
General Accounting Office (GAO). 1990. Wildlife management effects of Animal Damage Control program on predators. GAO/RCED-90-149, US General Account. Office, Washington, DC. 31 pp.
Gier, H. T. 1968. Coyotes in Kansas. Revised. Kansas State Coll. Agric. Exp. Stn. Bull. 393. 118 pp.
Green, J. S. ed. 1987. Protecting livestock from coyotes: a synopsis of the research of the Agricultural Research Service. Natl. Tech. Info. Serv. PB 88 133590/AS. 105 pp.
Green, J. S., and R. A. Woodruff. 1991. Livestock guarding dogs protect sheep from predators. US Dep. Agric., Agric. Info. Bull. No. 588. 31 pp.
Henderson, F. R. 1986. â€œHow to Call a Coyote,â€ Kansas State Univ., Coop. Ext. Serv., Manhattan. Pub. C-400. 4 pp.
Henderson, F. R. 1987. How to trap a coyote. Kansas State. Univ., Coop. Ext. Serv., Pub. C-660. 12 pp.
Henderson, F. R. 1988. Use of snares for capturing coyotes. CES, Kansas State Univ., Coop. Ext. Serv. Pub. C-698., Manhattan. 4 pp.
Henderson, F. R., E. K. Boggess, and R. J. Robel. 1977. Understanding the coyote. Kansas State Univ. Coop. Ext. Serv., Pub. C-578., Manhattan. 24 pp.
Hulet, C. V., D. M. Anderson, J. N. Smith, W. L. Shupe, C. A. Taylor, Jr., and L. W. Murray. 1989. Bonding of goats to sheep and cattle for protection from predators. Appl. An. Behav. Sci. 22:261-267.
Knowlton, F. F. 1972. Preliminary interpretations of coyote population mechanics with some management implications. J. Wildl. Manage. 36:369-382.
Linhart, S. B., G. J. Dasch, and F. J. Turkowski. 1981. The steel leghold trap: techniques for reducing foot injury and increasing selectivity. Proc. Worldwide Furbearer Conf. 3:1560-1578.
Linhart, S. B., J. D. Roberts, and G. J. Dasch. 1981. Electric fencing reduces coyote predation on pastured sheep. J. Range Manage. 35:276-281.
Linhart, S. B., R. T. Sterner, G. J. Dasch, and J. W. Theade. 1984. Efficacy of light and sound stimuli for reducing coyote predation upon pastured sheep. Prot. Ecol. 6:75-84.
Meduna, R. 1977. Relationship between sheep management and coyote predation. M.S. Thesis, Kansas State Univ., Manhattan. 140 pp.
National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS). 1991. Sheep and goat predator loss. US Dep. Agric., Agric. Statistics Board, Washington, DC.
National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS). 1992. Cattle and calves death loss. US Dep Agric., Agric. Statistics Board, Washington, DC.
Pearson, E. W. 1986. A literature review of livestock losses to predators in western U.S. US Fish Wildl. Serv. Final Rep., Denver, Colorado. 20 pp.
Robel, R. J., A. D. Dayton, F. R. Henderson, R. L. Meduna, and C. W. Spaeth. 1981. Relationships between husbandy methods and sheep losses to canine predators. J. Wildl. Manage. 45:894-911.
Scrivner, J. H. 1983. The 1080 toxic collar: economics of field use in Texas. Proc. Western Wildl. Damage Control Conf. 1:201-204.
Scrivner, J. H., D. A. Wade, G. E. Connolly, and L. C. Howard, Jr. 1985. The effects of predation on an Angora goat ranch. Nat. Wool Grower. 75:10-13.
Shelton, M. 1984. The use of conventional and electric fencing to reduce coyote predation on sheep and goats. Texas Agric. Exp. Stn. MP 1556. 12 pp.
Till, J. A., and F. F. Knowlton. 1983. Efficacy of denning in alleviating coyote depredations on domestic sheep. J. Wildl. Manage. 47:1018-1025.
Todd, A. W. and L. B. Keith. 1976. Responses of coyotes to winter reductions in agricultural carrion. Alberta Wildl. Tech. Bull. 5. 32 pp.
USDA. 1993. Animal Damage Control Program. Supplement to the Draft Environmental Impact Statement-1992. US Dep. Agric. Washington, DC.
US Fish and Wildlife Service. 1978. Predator damage in the West: a study of coyote management alternatives. US Fish Wildl. Serv., Washington, DC. 168 pp.
Wade, D. A. 1973. Control of damage by coyotes and some other carnivores. Colorado State Univ., Coop. Ext. Serv. Bull. 482a. 16 pp.
Wade, D. A. 1976. The use of aircraft in predator control. Vertebr. Pest Conf. Proc. 7:154-160.
Wagner, F. H. 1988. Predator control and the sheep industry: the role of science in policy formation. Regina Books, Claremont, California. 230 pp.
Walton, M. T., and C. A. Feild. 1989. Use of donkeys to guard sheep and goats in Texas. Eastern Wildl. Damage Control Conf. 4:87-94.
Young, S. P., and H. T. Jackson. 1951. The clever coyote. The Stackpole Co., Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, and the Wildl. Manage. Inst., Washington, DC. 411 pp.
Video tape, VHS. â€œLivestock Guarding Dogs, Protecting Sheep From Coyotes.â€ US Dep. Agric., An. Plant Health Inspect. Serv., An. Damage Control.
Video tape, VHS. â€œHow to Call a Coyote.â€ Kansas State Univ., Coop. Ext. Serv. Manhattan.
Video tape VHS. â€œHow to Snare a Coyote.â€ Kansas State Univ. Coop. Ext. Serv., Manhattan.
Video tape, VHS. â€œA Matter of Perspective.â€ Texas A & M Coop. Ext. Serv. San Angelo.
Video tape, VHS. â€œHow to Trap a Coyote.â€ Colorado State Univ. Coop. Ext. Serv., Fort Collins.
Scott E. Hygnstrom;
Robert M. Timm; Gary E. Larson
PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF WILDLIFE DAMAGE 1994
Cooperative Extension Division Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources University of Nebraska -Lincoln
United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Animal Damage Control
Great Plains Agricultural Council Wildlife Committee