BLACK BEARSBlackbear (Ursus americanus) (Ursus americanus)

Scott E. Hygnstrom
Extension Wildlife Damage Specialist
School of Natural Resources
University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Lincoln, Nebraska 68583-0974


Much of the text was adapted from the chapter “Black Bears” by M. Boddicker from the 1986 revision of Prevention and Control of Wildlife Damage.

Figure 1 from Schwartz and Schwartz (1981).

Figure 2 from Graf et al. (1992).

Figure 3 from Burt and Grossenheider (1976), adapted by Dave Thornhill, University of Nebraska-Lincoln.

Figures 4 and 5 from Hygnstrom and Craven (1986).

Figure 6 from Boddicker (1986).

Figure 7 courtesy of Gregerson Manufacturing Co., adapted by Jill Sack Johnson.

Figure 8 from Manitoba Fish and Wildlife agency publications, adapted by Jill Sack Johnson.

Figure 9 by M. Boddicker.

For Additional Information

Blair, G. 1981. Predator caller’s companion. Winchester Press, Tulsa, Oklahoma. 267 pp.

Boddicker, M. L., ed. 1980. Managing Rocky Mountain furbearers. Colorado Trapper’s Assoc., LaPorte, Colorado. 176 pp.

Bromley, M., ed. 1989. Bear-people conflicts: proceedings of a symposium on management strategies. Northwest Terr. Dep. Renew. Resour. Yellowknife. 246 pp.

Burt, W. H., and R. P. Grossenheider. 1976. A field guide to the mammals, 3d ed. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston. 289 pp.

Davenport, L. B., Jr. 1953. Agriculture depredation by the black bear in Virginia. J. Wildl. Manage. 17:331-340.

Deems, E. F., and D. Pursley, eds. 1983. North American furbearers: a contemporary reference. Int. Assoc. Fish Wildl. Agencies and Maryland Dep. Nat. Resour. Annapolis, Maryland. 223 pp.

Erickson, A. W. 1957. Techniques for livetrapping and handling black bears. Trans. North Amer. Wildl. Conf. 22:520-543.

Graf, L. H., P. L. Clarkson, and J. A. Nagy. 1992. Safety in bear country: a reference manual, rev. ed. Northwest Terr. Dep. Renew. Resour. Yellowknife. 135 pp.

Herrero, S. 1985. Bear attacks: their causes and avoidance. New Century Publ. Piscataway, New Jersey. 288 pp.

Hygnstrom, S. E., and S. R. Craven. 1986. Bear damage and nuisance problems in Wisconsin. Univ. Wisconsin Ext. Publ. G3000. Madison, Wisconsin. 6 pp.

Hygnstrom, S. E., and T. M. Hauge. 1989. A review of problem black bear management in Wisconsin. Pages 163-168 in M. Bromley, ed. Bear-people conflicts: proceedings of a symposium on management strategies. Northwest Terr. Dep. Renew. Resour. Yellowknife.

Jonkel, C. J., and I. McT. Cowan. 1971. The black bear in the spruce-fir forest. Wildl. Monogr. 27. 57 pp.

Jope, K. L. 1985. Implications of grizzly bear habituation to hikers. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 13:32-37.

Kolenosky, G. B., and S. M. Strathearn. 1987. Black bear. Pages 442-454 in M. Novak, J. A. Baker, M. E. Obbard, and B. Malloch, eds. Wild furbearer management and conservation in North America. Ontario Ministry of Nat. Resour. Toronto.

McArthur, K. L. 1981. Factors contributing to effectiveness of black bear transplants. J. Wildl. Manage. 45:102-110.

Meechan, W. R., and J. F. Thilenius. 1983. Safety in bear country: protective measures and bullet performance at short range. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-152. US Dep. Agric., For. Serv. Portland, Oregon. 16 pp.

Rogers, L. L. 1984. Reactions of free-ranging black bears to capsaicin spray repellent. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 12:58-61.

Rogers, L. L., D. W. Kuehn, A. W. Erickson, E. M. Harger, L. J. Verme, and J. J. Ozoga. 1976. Characteristics and management of black bears that feed in garbage dumps, camp grounds or residential areas. Int. Conf. Bear Res. Manage. 3:169-175.

Rutherglen, R. A. 1973. The control of problem black bears. British Columbia Fish Wildl. Branch, Wildl. Manage. Rep. 11. 78 pp.

Schwartz, C. W., and E. R. Schwartz. 1981. The wild mammals of Missouri, rev. ed. Univ. Missouri Press, Columbia. 356 pp. Singer, D. J. 1952. American black bear. Pages 97-102 in J. Walker McSpadden, ed. Animals of the world. Garden City Books, Garden City, New York.

Van Wormer, J. 1966. The world of the black bear. J. B. Lippincott Co., Philadelphia. 168 pp.

Wynnyk, W. P., and J. R. Gunson. 1977. Design and effectiveness of a portable electric fence for apiaries. Alberta Rec., Parks, and Wildl. Fish Wildl. Div. Alberta, Canada. 11 pp.


Scott E. Hygnstrom; Robert M. Timm; Gary E. Larson

Prevention and Control of Wildlife Damage 1994 Logo


Cooperative Extension Division Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources University of Nebraska -Lincoln

United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Animal Damage Control

Great Plains Agricultural Council Wildlife Committee


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