Edward C. Cleary Fig. 1. Cliff swallow (Hirundo pyrrhonota) with nests on a building.
Assistant State Director
USDA-APHIS-Wildlife Services
Sandusky, Ohio 44870

Fig. 1.  Geese, ducks, and other waterfowl may damage crops by feeding in fields.


I wish to thank Richard A. Dolbeer and Paul P. Woronecki of the USDA-APHIS-ADC Denver Wildlife Research Center, and Douglas A. Andrews, Ohio USDA-APHIS-ADC, for their editorial assistance in the preparation of this manuscript.

Figure 2 adapted from Duncan (1980).

Figure 4 photo by T. W. Seamans.

Figure 5 adapted from Westerkov (1950).

For Additional Information

Bellrose, F. C. 1980. Ducks, geese, and swans of North America, 3d ed. Stackpole Books, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. 540 pp.

Conover, M. R. 1991. Reducing nuisance Canada goose problems through habitat manipulation. Proc. Great Plains Wildl. Damage Conf. 10:146.

Conover, M. R., and G. C. Chasko. 1985. Nuisance Canada goose problems in the eastern United States. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 13:228-233.

Cross, D. H.. 1987. Deterring waterfowl from contaminated areas. US Dep. Inter. Fish Wildl. Serv. Office of Information Transfer, Region 8. 19 pp.

Duncan, M. J. 1980. The use of plastic flags for controlling waterfowl damage in small grains. US Dep. Inter. Fish Wildl. Serv. Leaflet. Bismarck, North Dakota. 1 pp.

Emigh, F. D. 1962. Open reservoir bird protection. J. Amer. Water Works Assoc. 54:1353-1360

Johnsgard, P. A. 1968. Waterfowl: their biology and natural history. Univ. Nebraska Press. Lincoln, 138 pp.

Knittle, C. E., and R. D. Porter, 1988. Waterfowl damage and control methods in ripening grain: an overview, US Dep. Inter. Fish Wildl. Serv. Fish Wildl. Tech. Rep. 14. 17 pp.

National Archives and Records Administration. 1992. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 50, Parts 1 to 199, Wildl. Fish., Washington, DC. 615 pp.

Terry, L. E. 1984. A wire grid system to deter waterfowl from using ponds on airports. in Bird hazards at airports, prepared for the Fed. Aviation Admin. by the US Dep. Inter. Fish Wildl. Serv., Denver Wildl. Res. Center, Task H -DWRC Work Unit 904.33. 19 pp.

Westerkov, K. 1950. Methods for determining the age of game bird eggs. J. Wildl. Manage., 14:56-67.


Scott E. Hygnstrom; Robert M. Timm; Gary E. Larson

Prevention and Control of Wildlife Damage Logo 1994


Cooperative Extension Division Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources University of Nebraska -Lincoln

United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Animal Damage Control

Great Plains Agricultural Council Wildlife Committee

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