Ron J. Johnson Fig.1. European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris)
Extension Wildlife Specialist
Department of Forestry, Fisheries and Wildlife
University of Nebraska
Lincoln, NE 68583-0819

James F. Glahn
Research Wildlife Biologist
Denver Wildlife Research Center
USDA-APHIS-Wildlife Services
Mississippi Research Station
Mississippi State, Mississippi 39762-6099

Fig. 1. Starlings, Sturnus vulgaris


The references listed under “For Additional Information” and many others were used in preparing this chapter. Gratitude is extended to the authors and the many researchers and observers who contributed to this body of knowledge. We also thank M. Beck, J. Besser, R. Fritschen, D. Mott, A. Stickley, and R. Timm for comments on the first edition of this chapter, J. Andelt provided typing and technical assistance. We gratefully acknowledge M. Beck, R. Case, D. Mott, and A. Stickley for critical reviews of this second edition, and L. Germer, J. Gosey, and D. Reese for reviews of specific portions.

Figure 1 from US Fish and Wildlife Service (1974), “Controlling Starlings,” Bulletin AC 209, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, modified and adapted by Renee Lanik, University of Nebraska-Lincoln.

Figure 2 from Bystrak et al. (1974), used with permission. Figure copyrighted by the National Audubon Society, Inc. Adapted by David Thornhill. Map by J. W. Rosahn, based on the National Audubon Society’s annual Christmas Bird Count. Map reprinted by permission from “Wintering Areas of Bird Species Potentially Hazardous to Aircraft.” D. Bystrak et al. (1974), National Audubon Society, Inc.

Figure 3 photo by Ron J. Johnson.

Figures 4 and 7 by Renee Lanik based on drawings by Jon Eggers and a drawing from Salmon and Gorenzel’s chapter “Cliff Swallows” in this publication.

Figure 5 by Renee Lanik, University of Nebraska-Lincoln.

Figure 6 by Jill Sack Johnson.

Figures 8 and 9 by Renee Lanik, University of Nebraska-Lincoln.

Figure 10 from DeHaven and Guarino (1969), adapted by Jill Sack Johnson.

Figure 11 by Renee Lanik based on E. R. Kalmbach (1939), “The Crow in Its Relation to Agriculture,” US Dep. Agric. Farmer’s Bull. No. 1102, rev. ed., Washington, DC. 21 pp., and US Fish Wildl. Serv. (no date), “Trapping Starlings,” Bull. AC 210, Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, Indiana.

For Additional Information

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Barnes, T. G. 1991. Eastern bluebirds, nesting structure design and placement. College of Agric. Ext. Publ. FOR-52, Univ. Kentucky, Lexington. 4 pp.

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Besser, J. F., W. C. Royall, Jr., and J. W. DeGrazio. 1967. Baiting starlings with DRC-1339 at a cattle feedlot. J. Wildl. Manage. 31:45-51.

Blokpoel, H. 1976. Bird hazards to aircraft. Clarke, Irwin & Co. Ltd., 236 pp.

Boudreau, C. W. 1975. How to win the war with pest birds. Wildl. Tech., Hollister, California. 174 pp.

Bystrak, D., C. S. Robbins, S. R. Drennan, and R. Arbib, eds. 1974. Wintering areas of bird species potentially hazardous to aircraft. A special report jointly prepared by the Natl. Audubon Soc. and the US Fish Wildl. Serv. Natl. Audubon Soc., Inc., New York. 156 pp.

Constantin, B., and J. Glahn. 1989. Controlling roosting starlings in industrial facilities by baiting. Proc. Eastern Wildl. Damage Control Conf. 4:47-52.

Crase, F. T., C. P. Stone, R. W. DeHaven, and D. F. Mott. 1976. Bird damage to grapes in the United States with emphasis on California. US Fish Wildl. Serv., Special Sci. Rep. - Wildl. No. 197. Washington, DC. 18 pp.

DeCino, T. J., D. J. Cunningham, and E. W. Schafer, Jr. 1966. Toxicity of DRC-1339 to starlings. J. Wildl. Manage. 30:249-253.

DeHaven, R. W., and J. L. Guarino. 1969. A nest-box trap for starlings. Bird-Banding 40:49-50.

Dolbeer, R. A. 1984. Blackbirds and starlings: population ecology and habits related to airport environments. Proc. Wildl. Hazards to Aircraft Conf. Training Workshop. Charleston, South Carolina, US Dep. Trans. Rep. DOT/FAA/AAS/84-1:149-159.

Dolbeer, R. A. 1989. Current status and potential of lethal means of reducing bird damage in agriculture. Pages 474-483 in H. Ouellet, ed., Acta XIX Congressus Int. Ornithol., Vol. I. Univ. Ottawa Press, Ottawa, Canada.

Dolbeer, R. A., A. R. Stickley, Jr., and P. P. Woronecki. 1978/1979. Starling, Sturnus vulgaris, damage to sprouting wheat in Tennessee and Kentucky, U.S.A. Prot. Ecol. 1:159-169.

Dolbeer, R. A., P. P. Woronecki, R. L. Bruggers. 1986. Reflecting tapes repel blackbirds from millet, sunflowers, and sweet corn. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 14:418-425.

Dolbeer, R. A., P. P. Woronecki, A. R. Stickley, Jr., and S. B. White. 1978. Agricultural impacts of a winter population of blackbirds and starlings. The Wilson Bull. 90:31.

Feare, C. J. 1980. The economics of starling damage. Pages 39-55 in E. N. Wright, I. R. Inglis, and C. J. Feare, eds. Bird problems in agriculture, British Crop Prot. Council, Croydon, UK. 210 pp.

Feare, C. J. 1984. The starling. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. 315 pp.

Feare, C. J. 1989. The changing fortunes of an agricultural bird pest: the European starling. Agric. Zool. Rev. 3:317-342.

Feare, C. J., and K. P. Swannack. 1978. Starling damage and its prevention at an open-fronted calf yard. An. Prod. 26:259-265.

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Glahn, J. F. 1982. Use of starlicide to reduce starling damage at livestock feeding operations. Proc. Great Plains Wildl. Damage Control Workshop 5:273-277.

Glahn, J. F., and D. L. Otis. 1986. Factors influencing blackbird and European starling damage at livestock feeding operations. J. Wildl. Manage. 50:15-19.

Glahn, J. F., and W. Stone. 1984. Effects of starling excrement in the food of cattle and pigs. An. Prod. 38:439-446.

Glahn, J. F., S. K. Timbrook, and D. J. Twedt. 1987. Temporal use patterns of wintering starlings at a southeastern livestock farm: implications for damage control. Proc. Eastern Wildl. Damage Control Conf. 3:194-203.

Glahn, J. F., D. J. Twedt, and D. L. Otis. 1983. Estimating feed loss from starling use of livestock feed troughs. Wildl. Soc. Bull. ll:366-372.

Glahn, J. F., A. R. Stickley, Jr., J. F. Heisterberg, and D. F. Mott. 1991. Impact of roost control on local urban and agricultural blackbird problems. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 19:511-522.

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Scott E. Hygnstrom; Robert M. Timm; Gary E. Larson

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Cooperative Extension Division Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources University of Nebraska -Lincoln

United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Animal Damage Control

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