Bart W. O’Gara
Research Biologist (retired)
US Fish and Wildlife Service
Montana Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit
The University of Montana
Missoula, Montana 59812

Additional Eagle Control Information

 Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus)

Fig. 1. Left, Bald eagle, Haliaeetus leucocephalus; right, golden eagle, Aquila chrysaetos


Reviews and suggestions by D. L. Flath, D. W. Hawthorne, G. L. Nunley, M. J. Shult, C. W. Ramsey, W. Rightmire, and R. M. Timm were of major help in the preparation of this manuscript.

Figure 1, bald eagle, from Charles W. Schartz, Wildlife — Drawings, 1980, Missouri Department of Conservation, Jefferson City, p. 53, adapted by Emily Oseas Routman; golden eagle by Emily Oseas Routman.

Figures 2 and 3 by Emily Oseas Routman, adapted from Susan Brooke in US Fish and Wildlife Service and Texas Agricultural Extension Service (no date), and from Grossman. M.L. and J. Hamlet (1964), Birds of Prey of the World, C.N. Potter, New York, 496 pp.

Figure 4 by Daniel B. Pond (1984), Montana Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit, University of Montana, Missoula.

For Additional Information

Boeker, E. L. 1974. Status of golden eagle surveys in the western states. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 2:46-49.

Bruns, E. H. 1970. Winter predation of golden eagles and coyotes on pronghorn antelopes. Can. Field-Nat. 84:301-304.

Chamberlain, E. B. 1974. Rare and endangered birds of the southern national forests. US Dep. Agric. For. Serv., Washington, DC. 108 pp.

Crowe, S. 1980. Eagle program annual report; fiscal year 1980. US Fish Wildl. Serv., Div. An. Damage Control. San Angelo, Texas. 44 pp.

Foster, H. A., and R. E. Crisler. 1978. Evaluation of golden eagle predation on domestic sheep, Temperance Creek Snake Sheep and Goat Allotment, Hells Canyon National Recreation Area, Oregon. US Fish Wildl. Serv. An. Damage Control. Portland, Oregon. 26 pp.

Glover, F. A., and L. C. Heugly. 1970. Final report: golden eagle ecology in West Texas. Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins. 84 pp.

Hogue, J. 1954. The grouse and the eagle. Colorado Conserv. 3:8-11.

Kalmbach, E. R., R. H. Imler, and L. W. Arnold. 1964. The American eagles and their economic status, 1964. US Fish Wildl. Serv., Washington, DC. 86 pp.

Marshall, D. B., and P. R. Mikerson. 1976. The golden eagle: 1776-1976. Natl. Parks Conserv. Mag. 50(7):14-19.

Matchett, M. R., and B. W. O’Gara. 1987. Methods of controlling golden eagle depredation on domestic sheep in southwestern Montana. J. Raptor Res. 21:85-94.

Miner, N. R. 1975. Montana golden eagle removal and translocation project. Proc. Great Plains Wildl. Damage Control Workshop 8:155-161.

Mollhagen, T. R., R. W. Wiley, and R. L. Packard. 1972. Prey remains in golden eagle nests: Texas and New Mexico. J. Wildl. Manage. 36:784-792.

Office of the Federal Register, General Services Administration. 1978. Code of federal regulations 50, wildlife and fisheries, US Govt. Printing Office, Washington, DC. 842 pp.

O’Gara, B. W. 1982. Predation by golden eagles on domestic lambs in Montana. Pages 345358 in J. M. Peek and P. D. Dalke, eds. Proc. Wildl.-Livestock Relationships Symp. Proc. 10 Univ. Idaho, Moscow.

O’Gara, B. W. and D. C. Getz. 1986. Capturing golden eagles using a helicopter and net gun. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 14:400-402.

Olendorff, R. R., A. D. Miller, and R. N. Lehman. 1981. Suggested practices for raptor protection on powerlines. The state of the art in 1981. Raptor Res. Rep. No. 4. Raptor Res. Found., Inc. 111 pp.

Phillips, R. L., and F. S. Blom. 1988. Distribution and magnitude of eagle/livestock conflicts in the western United States. Proc. Vertebr. Pest Conf. 13:241-244.

Phillips, R. L., T. P. McEneany, and A. E. Beske. 1984. Population densities of breeding golden eagles in Wyoming. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 12:269-273.

Snow, C. 1973. Habitat management service for endangered species. Rep. No. 5, southern bald eagle and northern bald eagle. US Dep. Inter., Bur. Land Manage. Portland, Oregon. 58 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service. 1976. Taking of golden eagles: denial of depredation control order. Federal Register 4(221):50355-50356.

US Forest Service. 1977. Bald eagle habitat management guidelines, US Forest Service— California Region. US For. Serv. San Francisco, California. 60 pp.

Wade, D. A., and J. E. Bowns. 1982. Procedures for evaluating predation on livestock and wildlife. Bull. B-1429, Texas Agric. Ext. Serv. College Station. 42 pp.


Scott E. Hygnstrom; Robert M. Timm; Gary E. Larson

Prevention and Control of Wildlife Damage Logo 1994


Cooperative Extension Division Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources University of Nebraska -Lincoln

United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Animal Damage Control

Great Plains Agricultural Council Wildlife Committee

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