AMERICAN CROWS American Crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos)

Acknowledgments

The references listed under “For Additional Information” and many others were used in preparing this chapter. Gratitude is extended to the authors and the many researchers and observers who contributed to this body of knowledge. I extend special appreciation to R.

W. Altman, retired Oklahoma State University extension wildlife specialist, for his contributions as co-author of the first edition of this chapter. I also thank M. M. Beck, R. M. Case, R. Kelly, and R. Ross for comments and helpful advice on the first edition; J. Andelt provided typing and technical assistance. I gratefully acknowledge M. M. Beck, C. S. Brown, R. M. Case, and R. L. Knight for valuable reviews of this second edition.

Figure 1 by Emily Oseas Routman, University of Nebraska-Lincoln.

Figure 2 from E. R. Kalmbach (1939).

For Additional Information

Arvin, J., J. Arvin, C. Cottam, and G. Unland. 1975. Mexican crow invades south Texas. Auk 92:387-390.

Bent, A. C. 1964. Life histories of North American jays, crows and titmice. Dover Pub., Inc., New York. 495 pp.

Chamberlain-Auger, J. A., P. J. Auger, and E. G. Strauss. 1990. Breeding biology of American crows. Wilson Bull. 102:615-622.

Conover, M. R. 1985. Protecting vegetables from crows using an animated crow-killing owl model. J. Wildl. Manage. 49:643-645.

Dimmick, C. R., and L. K. Nicolaus. 1990. Efficiency of conditioned aversion in reducing depredation by crows. J. Appl. Ecol. 27:200-209.

Good, E.E. 1952. The life history of the American crow, Corvus brachyrhynchos Brehm.Ph.D. Diss., The Ohio State Univ., Columbus. 203 pp.

Goodwin, D. 1976. Crows of the world. Comstock Publ. Assoc., a div. Cornell Univ. Press, Ithaca, New York. 354 pp.

Gorenzel, W. P., and T. P. Salmon. 1993. Tape-recorded calls disperse American crows from urban roosts. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 21:334-338.

Friend, M. 1987. Avian cholera. Pages 69-82 in M. Friend, ed. A field guide to wildlife diseases, Volume 1. General field procedures and diseases of migratory birds, US Dep. Inter., Fish Wildl. Serv., Resour. Publ. 167, Washington, DC.

Houston, C. S. 1977. Changing patterns of Corvidae on the prairies. Blue Jay 35:149-155.

Ignatiuk, J. B., and R. G. Clark. 1991. Breeding biology of American crows in Saskatchewan parkland habitat. Can. J. Zool. 69:168-175.

Johnsgard, P. A. 1979. Birds of the Great Plains, breeding species and their distribution. Univ. Nebraska Press, Lincoln. 539 pp.

Kalmbach, E. R. 1937. Crow-waterfowl relationships. US Dep. Agric., Cir. 433, Washington, DC. 36 pp.

Kalmbach, E. R. 1939. The crow in its relation to agriculture. US Dep. Agric., Farmer’s Bull. No. 1102, rev. ed. Washington, DC. 21 pp.

Kilham, L. 1989. The American crow and the common raven. Texas A&M Univ. Press, College Station. 255 pp.

Knight, R. L., D. J. Grout, and S. A. Temple. 1987. Nest-defense behavior of the American crow in urban and rural areas. Condor 89:175-177.

Knopf, F. L., and B. A. Knopf. 1983. Flocking pattern of foraging American crows in Oklahoma. Wilson Bull. 95:153-155.

Maccarone, A. D. 1987. Sentinel behaviour in American Crows. Bird Behav. 7:93-95.

Martin, A. C., H. S. Zim, and A. L. Nelson. 1951. American wildlife and plants, a guide to wildlife food habits. Dover Publ., Inc., New York. 500 pp.

Mott, D. F., J. F. Besser, R. R. West, and J.W. DeGrazio. 1972. Bird damage to peanuts and methods for alleviating the problem. Proc. Verteb. Pest Conf. 5:118-120.

Moran, S. 1991. Control of hooded crows by modified Australian traps. Phytoparasitica 19:95-101.

Pochop, P. A., R. J. Johnson, D. A. Agüero, and

K. M. Eskridge. 1990. The status of lines in bird control — a review. Proc. Verteb. Pest Conf. 14:317-324.

Schorger, A. W. 1941. The crow and the raven in early Wisconsin. Wilson Bull. 53:103-106.

Stouffer P. C., and D. F. Caccamise. 1991. Capturing American crows using alpha-chloralose. J. Field Ornithol. 62:450-453.

Stouffer P. C., and D. F. Caccamise. 1991. Roosting and diurnal movements of radio-tagged American crows. Wilson Bull. 103:387-400.

Sullivan, B. D., and J. J. Dinsmore. 1990. Factors affecting egg predation by American crows.

J. Wildl. Manage. 54:433-437.

Terres, J. K. 1980. The Audubon Society encyclopedia of North American birds. Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., New York. 1109 pp.

Weeks, R. J. 1984. Histoplasmosis, sources of infection and methods of control. US Dep. Health Human Serv., Public Health Serv., Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, Georgia. 8 pp.

Yahner, R. H., and A. L. Wright. 1985. Depredation on artificial ground nests: effects of edge and plot age. J. Wildl. Manage. 49:508-513.

Editors

Scott E. Hygnstrom

Robert M. Timm

Gary E. Larson

Prevention and Control of Wildlife Damage Logo 1994PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF WILDLIFE DAMAGE — 1994

Cooperative Extension Division Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources University of Nebraska -Lincoln

United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Animal Damage Control Great Plains Agricultural Council Wildlife Committee

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