Terms of Use

Wildlife Damage Management is a complicated and potentially dangerous activity. Visitors also need to think carefully about whether they can legally and responsibly handle the wildlife problem on their own. ICWDM cannot guarantee that all the information is accurate, up to date or even being followed correctly. We strongly suggest that visitors become thoroughly familiar with the problem by reading as much as they can and consult with state officials before initiating any wildlife damage management program.

Visitors use ICWDM at their own risk.


Liability: For documents and information available from this server and http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/icwdm/, ICWDM does not warrant or assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed.

The Internet Center for Wildlife Damage Management does not necessarily concur, endorse or recommend all of the opinions and/or images contained within these documents.  Should you use or rely on the information, techniques and materials provided by the ICWDM, you are responsible for determinations of efficacy and legality of such use and/or reliance, and you will at all times defend, indemnify and hold harmless the Board of Regents of the University of Nebraska, University of Wisconsin – Stevens Point, Utah State University, Cornell University, and Clemson University, their officers, employees and agents against all claims, demands, costs, and expenses arise from your use of or reliance on any information provided in the ICWDM and the Digital Commons. The ICWDM includes these sources for purposes of historical record, completeness and research.

Endorsement: ICWDM does not endorse or recommend any commercial products, processes, or services. The views and opinions of authors expressed on ICWDM Web sites do not necessarily state or reflect those of the ICWDM, and they may not be used for advertising or product endorsement purposes.

External Links: ICWDM provides links to other Internet sites for the convenience of users. ICWDM is not responsible for the availability or content of these external sites, nor does ICWDM endorse, warrant, or guarantee the products, services, or information described or offered at these other Internet sites. Users cannot assume that the external sites will abide by the same Privacy Policy to which ICWDM adheres.

Pop-Up Advertisements: When visiting our Web site, your Web browser may produce pop-up advertisements. These advertisements were most likely produced by other Web sites you visited or by third party software installed on your computer. ICWDM does not endorse or recommend products or services for which you may view a pop-up advertisement on your computer screen while visiting our site.

Medical Information: It is not the intention of ICWDM to provide specific medical advice, but rather to provide users with information to better understand risks, their health, and diagnosed disorders. Specific medical advice will not be provided, and ICWDM urges you to consult with a qualified physician for diagnosis and for answers to your personal questions.

We do not honor privacy and confidentiality disclaimers in e-mails unless the ICWDM is under contract.

  • E-mails received with these disclaimers may not be answered.
  • By submitting images to the ICWDM, you agree to allow the ICWDM to use the images and to allow others to use the images for educational and commercial purposes. (11-9-2011).
  • We endeavor to provide advice suitable to the needs of the requestor. However, we cannot guarantee the accuracy, legality, or appropriateness of our advice. Users are encouraged to consult competent advice from an onsite advisor.

Conditions of Use

This site is maintained by ICWDM. For site security purposes, marketing and to ensure that this service remains available to all users, we may use software programs to monitor traffic and to identify unauthorized attempts to upload or change information or otherwise cause damage. In the event of authorized law enforcement investigations and pursuant to any required legal process, information from these sources may be used to help identify an individual.


The Internet Center for Wildlife Damage Management seeks to make research based wildlife damage management information available to the public.  We welcome individuals, scholars and interested individuals to make use of the vast materials we have provided here.


We do however, request that information not be reproduced on another website without our express written permission. For permission send a detailed e-mail with full contact information to the webmaster in the footer.

Researchers, educators and students are welcome to use the written information for legitimate academic and research purposes, such as papers, presentations etc. provided due credit is given to the Center, including our url. http://icwdm.org

Permission was secured in obtaining copyrights from the publishing institution of The Prevention and Control of Wildlife Damage.  Permission was also secured in obtaining copyrights from the publishing institution of the proceedings of the various wildlife damage control workshops and conferences.  Individual authors of articles may still retain individual copyrights.

Use of Images

Images on the website are not to be used elsewhere without our expressed written consent.

When making requests, please provide the following information:

  • Name, full contact information of requesting entity.
  • Purpose and duration of the use of the material
  • Specific name (if possible) and url of the page(s) which contain the images you are requesting permission for.


The ICWDM welcomes links from external websites, including deep links, provided the linking mechanism does not make the content appear as if it was created by the linking site.

ICWDM Copyright 2023

Any person is hereby authorized to view, copy, print, and distribute these documents subject to the following conditions: Images, articles, and abstracts included in all documents are copyrighted and may not be reproduced or redistributed (in partial or whole) for resale or as part of another publication, advertisement, etc. without express permission of the Internet Center for Wildlife Damage Management. Copies of images, articles, and abstracts may be used for informational/educational purposes as long as they include our copyright notice. Documents distributed in an electronic manner (e.g., Adobe Acrobat — .pdf , PostScript files — .ps, HTM, HTML, etc.) are not to be altered or manipulated.

Acrobat images may be viewed with an Adobe viewer or other applications with Acrobat read capabilities. Other files may be viewed or printed using standard means. News organizations News releases, reports, and other information on this Web site may be used by news organizations for reproduction in print and other media.

Note on Web Usage. Reproduction of images, articles and abstracts for informational/educational purposes should not taken to mean reproduction of such items on a commercial Web site. Such use falls under reproduction as part of another publication.

Commercial Web site is taken to mean a grouping of Web pages which, taken in total through the following of navigation or insertion of advertisements, serves the commercial purposes of a company or individuals. Examples of commercial purposes include (but are not limited to) enhancement of a commercial area, online sales catalogs, and information sites gaining revenue from advertisements or insertions of links.

Links may be made to any documents on the ICWDM site subject to the following conditions: Images, articles, and abstracts included in all documents may not be incorporated into a Web document in such a way that the origin of the image, article, or abstract cannot be determined. Images, articles, and abstracts included in all documents may not be incorporated into a Web document within frames so that advertisements or other navigation can be associated with the image, article or abstract.

If you would like, you can use the following image when making a link to the ICWDM. You may copy this image to your local Web server or link to the image located at the ICWDM website: http://icwdm.org. Restricted Rights Legend Use, duplication, or disclosure by the United States Government is subject to the restrictions set forth in DFARS 252.227-7013 (c)(1)(ii) and FAR 52.227-19.

7/1/2005 rev 8/22/2012